Roxbury (Eliot) Burying Ground, 1954


Brown University (2017). Colonial enslavement of Native Americans included those who surrendered, too. Brown.edu


De Costa, J.,  and Hall, Charles.  “A plan of the town and harbour of Boston.”  Map.  1775.  Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center 


Dudley, Dean (1886). The History of the Dudley Family. Wakefield, Mass .pdf Library of Congress


Dudley, Joseph (1675).  Letter from Joseph Dudley to John Leverett. Native Northeast Portal


Fiorentino, Wesley (2021). Pirates in Boston: The Trial and Execution of John Quelch. The Beehive (Massachusetts Historical Society).


Hardesty, Jared. (2017). Creating an Unfree Hinterland: Merchant Capital, Bound Labor, and Market Production in Eighteenth-century Massachusetts. Early American Studies, 15(1), 37-63.


Headlam, C. (1916). Calendar of State Papers Colonial, America and West Indies, Volume 23-1706-1708. 


Hanscom, E. Deering. (1917). The heart of the Puritan: selections from letters and journals. New York: The Macmillan company.


Lincoln, Rose (2011). Hidden Spaces: The tiny cemetery. The Harvard Gazette


Massachusetts Historical Society (1892). Collections. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society.

https://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc1.31175024078589 https://www.google.com/books/edition/Letter_book_1712_1729/IVhHAAAAYAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=0

McNally, Deborah (2011). Dorcas The Blackmore (ca. 1620-?). BlackPast.com


Miller, Yawu (2017). Re-writing Boston’s history of slavery: Efforts underway to change historic names. The Bay State Banner


Nodjimbadem, Katie (2017). Newly Uncovered Documents Address the Mystery of One Slave’s Life. SMITHSONIANMAG.COM


Poetry Foundation. Anne Bradstreet 1612-1672 Poetryfoundation.org


Sheppard, Stephen M. (2000). Paul Dudley: Heritage, Observation, and Conscience. St. Mary’s University School of Law

Suffolk County, MA: Probate File Papers. Online database. AmericanAncestors.org. New England Historic Genealogical Society, 2017-2019. (From records supplied by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court Archives. Digitized images provided by FamilySearch.org) *subscription/library access required


Thwing, W. Eliot. (1908). History of the First Church in Roxbury, Massachusetts, 1630-1904. Boston: W. A. Butterfield.


Vital Records of Roxbury, Massachusetts, to the End of the Year 1849. (1925). United States: Essex institute.


Whiting, G. (2020). Race, Slavery, and the Problem of Numbers in Early New England: A View from Probate Court. The William and Mary Quarterly, 77 (3), 405-440.


Additional Media and Resources

NB: I repeat some items from the bibliography for the sake of organization.

Re-writing Boston’s history of slavery: Efforts underway to change historic names (2017) by Yawu Miller for The Bay State Banner. This is a concise overview of the controversy surrounding the renaming of old Dudley Square written before the name changed to Nubian Square.

Introductory talks about New England slavery

Jared Hardesty gives an authentic overview of the realities of slavery in New England
Wilberforce Institute, University of Hull (UK): This webinar introduces some of the major scholars who are contributing to this dynamic field – Jared Hardesty, Gloria McCahon Whiting and Margaret Newell – along with commentary from two very distinguished historians of New England and Canada – Mark Peterson and Charmaine Nelson. The speakers will reveal how important the question of slavery was in Massachusetts, despite the small number of the enslaved, and outline a range of historical opinion on slavery and emancipation in this fascinating British colony and American state.

Roxbury, Past and Present

About Roxbury Roxbury Historical Society

Two independent short films on contemporary Roxbury (2003, 2015) by Tessil Collins with ensuing discussion

Drake, F. S. (Francis Samuel). (1878). The town of Roxbury: its memorable persons and places, its history and antiquities, with numerous illustrations of its old landmarks and noted personages. Roxbury.

Glimpses of Early Roxbury: General Society of the Daughters of the Revolution. Massachusetts. Mary Warren Chapter, Roxbury (1905).Boston

Thwing, W. Eliot. (1908). History of the First Church in Roxbury, Massachusetts, 1630-1904. Boston: W. A. Butterfield.

Vital Records of Roxbury, Massachusetts, to the End of the Year 1849. (1925). United States: Essex institute.

Nubian Square mural by ProBlak, GoFive, Soems, and P. 14Teen Wright. 2019. Photo: September 2021.

Further Background on Boston Colonial Slavery

The Shirley-Eustis Place: Working Report On Slavery At The Shirley-Eustis House (2021) by Aabid Allibhai, JD. PhD Candidate, African & African American Studies Harvard University (Jump to .pdf pg 63)

Lifelong residents of Shirley Street (the overwhelming majority of Shirley Street residents) and the Dudley Street Neighborhood Initiative (DSNI) know the structure at 42-44 Shirley Street to be a former slave quarters in addition to a barn. They learned this from the folks at the Shirley-Eustis House in the 1980s. In fact, this information is part of the tours given by DSNI. This would make 42-44 Shirley Street one of only two still-standing slave quarters in the northern United States (the other being the slave quarters at the Royall House and Slave Quarters in Medford, MA). Shirley had white indentured servants and presumably live-in secretaries while governor of Massachusetts, perhaps forcing his slaves to live at 42-44 Shirley Street due to lack of living space in the main house. Eliakim Hutchinson, one of the richest men in Boston, owned many slaves, perhaps forcing some of them to live at 42-44 Shirley Street for the same reason.

– Aabid Allibhai

The Royall House and Slave Quarters of Medford, Massachusetts

In the eighteenth century, the Royall House and Slave Quarters was home to the largest slaveholding family in Massachusetts and the enslaved Africans who made their lavish way of life possible. Today, the Royall House and Slave Quarters is a museum whose architecture, household items, archaeological artifacts, and programs bear witness to intertwined stories of wealth and bondage, set against the backdrop of America’s quest for independence.




Boston Middle Passage Project – In October 2020, the Middle Passage and Port Marker Boston Partnership installed a permanent marker on Long Wharf. It acknowledges Boston as a port of entry for enslaved Africans.

Nodjimbadem, Katie (2017). Newly Uncovered Documents Address the Mystery of One Slave’s Life. SMITHSONIANMAG.COM

Paul Dudley’s “parting stone” in front of 3 Centre St in John Eliot Square. Part of a network of mile marker stones erected of Paul Dudley’s lifetime, this stone marks the divergence of the roads to Dedham and Rhode Island on the left, and to Cambridge on the right. September 2021.

Books with Complimentary Podcasts

New England Bound: Slavery and Colonization in Early America (2016) by Wendy Warren

While earlier histories of slavery largely confine themselves to the South, Warren’s “panoptical exploration” (Christian Science Monitor) links the growth of the northern colonies to the slave trade and examines the complicity of New England’s leading families, demonstrating how the region’s economy derived its vitality from the slave trading ships coursing through its ports.

Brethren by Nature: New England Indians, Colonists, and the Origins of American Slavery (2015) by Margaret Ellen Newell

In Brethren by Nature, Margaret Ellen Newell reveals a little-known aspect of American history: English colonists in New England enslaved thousands of Indians. Massachusetts became the first English colony to legalize slavery in 1641, and the colonists’ desire for slaves shaped the major New England Indian wars…

The Digital Archive of John Wompas. Jenny Hale Pulsipher, scholar and author of Swindler Sachem: The American Indian Who Sold His Birthright, Dropped out of Harvard, and Conned the King of England (Yale University Press, 2018) describes the archive below. Pulsipher’s notes on captives of King Philips War is where I first saw a “Mr Dudly” as enslaving an Indian girl; this was my first hint that any Dudleys had enslaved people.

I gathered a great deal of information on such subjects as Indian slavery, Native land sales, the Atlantic maritime trade, and Native education in Massachusetts. This information contributed to the book by providing historical context for Wompas’s life, but most nitty-gritty details were tangential to the book’s purpose so do not appear in it. Because those details could help other scholars working on more narrowly focused books or articles, I have placed them here where they can be accessible to anyone who has the URL.

Unfreedom: Slavery and Dependence in Eighteenth-Century Boston and Black Lives, Native Lands, White Worlds: A History of Slavery in New England by Jared Ross Hardesty. (See embeded WGBH video above.)

[Hardesty] shares the individual stories of enslaved people, bringing their experiences to life. He also explores the importance of slavery to the colonization of the region and to agriculture and industry, New England’s deep connections to Caribbean plantation societies, and the significance of emancipation movements in the era of the American Revolution.


HUB History Podcast: He Takes Faces at the Lowest Rates (episode 229) (2021) Host: Jake @HUBHistory

In 1773, an ad appeared in the Boston Gazette for a Black artist who was described as possessing an “extraordinary genius” for painting portraits.  From this brief mention, we will explore the life of a gifted visual artist who was enslaved in Boston, his friendship with Phillis Wheatley, the enslaved poet, and the mental gymnastics that were required on the part of white enslavers to justify owning people like property.  Through the life of a second gifted painter, we’ll find out how the coming of the American Revolution changed life for some enslaved African Americans in Boston.  And through the unanswered questions about the lives of both these men, we’ll examine the limits of what historical sources can tell us about any given enslaved individual.  

– HUB History

Hub History Podcast: Mutiny on the Rising SuMutiny on the Rising Sun, with Dr. Jared Ross Hardesty (episode 234) (2021) Host: Jake @HUBHistory

This week, Jake interviews Dr. Jared Ross Hardesty, author of the new book Mutiny on the Rising Sun: a tragic tale of smuggling, slavery, and chocolate, which uncovers the dark web of interconnections between Old North Church, chocolate, and chattel slavery.  Dr. Hardesty will explain why a reputable sea captain would become a smuggler, trafficking in illegal chocolate and enslaved Africans; the risks an 18th century Bostonian would take to provide himself with a competence, or enough money to allow his family to live independently; and what it meant in that era to be of but not from Boston.  At the heart of the story is a brutal murder and mutiny on the high seas, illustrating the fundamental brutality of life in the 18th century, but the role of the church (specifically Old North Church) in the social and economic lives of Bostonians is also central to understanding the life and death of Captain Newark Jackson.

– HUB History

Dynamic Digital Research Tools

Atlascope Boston, Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center at the Boston Public Library

HathiTrust Digital Library

Founded in 2008, HathiTrust is a not-for-profit collaborative of academic and research libraries preserving 17+ million digitized items. HathiTrust offers reading access to the fullest extent allowable by U.S. copyright law, computational access to the entire corpus for scholarly research, and other emerging services based on the combined collection. HathiTrust members steward the collection — the largest set of digitized books managed by academic and research libraries — under the aims of scholarly, not corporate, interests.

HathiTrust tutorial for researching their digital library, a source for many documents cited in this work.

Supplementary tweets from the Eleven Names Twitter account.

Three-tweet thread on potential lead on the post-Dudleian life of Brill.

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Copyright Wayne Tucker 2023. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License